Monday, July 27, 2020
The Psychology of the Brain and Behavior Theories Biological Psychology Print The Psychology of the Brain and Behavior By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Richard Fogoros, MD on August 13, 2014 Richard N. Fogoros, MD, is a retired professor of medicine and board-certified internal medicine physician and cardiologist. He is Verywells Senior Medical Advisor. Learn about our Medical Review Board Richard Fogoros, MD Updated on September 29, 2019 Hero Images / Getty Images More in Theories Biological Psychology Behavioral Psychology Cognitive Psychology Developmental Psychology Personality Psychology Social Psychology Psychosocial Psychology In This Article Table of Contents Expand Syllabus for This Week The Basics The Neuron Neuron Anatomy Neurotransmitters Communication Systems The Brain View All Back To Top You have explored the fundamentals of what psychology is and how psychologists research the human mind and behavior. This lesson focuses on the biological processes that play a role in how we think, feel, react and behave. Every year, millions of people are affected by disorders of the brain and nervous system including Alzheimers, Parkinsons disease, stroke, and traumatic brain injuries. These illnesses and injuries highlight the importance of the biological bases for our behavior. In this weeks lesson, well explore some of the basics of biological psychology. Syllabus for This Week What is biopsychology?What is a neuron?The structure of a neuronThe nervous and endocrine systemsThe brain Click the links below to read the articles and resources related to each topic in this lesson. Dont worry, there is no homework to complete! Each lesson in this course is entirely self-directed, which means that it is up to you to read and learn the materials. Good luck with todays lesson! The Basics The area of psychology that seeks to understand how the brain affects behavior is known as biopsychology, although you may also hear this subject referred to as psychobiology or behavioral neuroscience. Understanding the Field of Biopsychology The Neuron Neurons are the basic building blocks of life. These highly specialized cells are responsible for receiving and transmitting information from one part of the body to another. In this article, youll learn more about how neurons function. Understanding the Neurons Role in the Body Neuron Anatomy In order to better understand how a neuron works to transmit information throughout the body, it is essential to know the different parts of a neuron. Learn about the structure of a neuron and how neural signals are transmitted in this overview of neuron anatomy. Overview of the Structure of a Neuron Neurotransmitters Youve seen how a cell is structured and how nerve impulses are propagated down the cell, but how does this information travel from one cell to the next? Learn more these chemical messengers that transmit signals from one cell to the next in this overview of neurotransmitters. Understanding the Role of Neurotransmitters Communication Systems Neurons make up only a small part of the human bodys complex communication system. The nervous system is composed of two main parts: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. Additionally, the endocrine system plays an important role in communication. Learn more about these two important systems and the impact they have on the brain, the body and behavior in this article on the nervous and endocrine systems. How Nervous and Endocrine Systems Work The Brain Technological advances in recent years have allowed scientists to study the human brain in ways that were not possible in the past. Learn more about the different parts of the brain and the functions that each area serves in this tour of the human brain. A Guide to the Anatomy of the Brain Final Thoughts Congratulations, youve reached the end of lesson three! This lesson covers just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to the brain and behavior, but understanding this information establishes a solid foundation for future study. If you feel that you have fully studied the information in this lesson, then feel free to move on to lesson four. If you are still struggling to understand or remember the material in todays lesson, I recommend coming back to review the information in a few days before you continue on to the next lesson. Are you struggling with these lessons? Be sure to check out our great selection of psychology study tips, advice on how to take good psychology notes and some excellent strategies to help you study for psychology exams. What the Biological Perspective Means in Psychology
Friday, May 22, 2020
In English grammar, gradability is the semantic property of an adjective that identifies different levels or degrees of the quality it denotes, such as small, smaller, smallest. An adjective that is gradable (or scalar) can be used in the comparative or superlative forms, or with words such as very, fairly, rather, and less. Although many adjectives are gradable, not all of them are gradable in the same way. The big divide, says Antonio Fabregas, is the distinction between qualitative and relational adjectives (The Oxford Handbook of Derivational Morphology, 2014). Examples and Observations There is a vast difference between better and best. You may be better than the rest, but you are not a success until you have made the effort to become the best you can be.(John Wooden, Coach Woodens Pyramid of Success. Regal, 2005)I want to go on record right now, that this is the most stupid, dimwitted, idiotic, moronic piece of putrefied garbage that I have ever in my entire professional career had the displeasure of being involved with.(Richard Dreyfuss as Chris Lecce in Another Stakeout, 1993)Happy insect! what can beIn happiness compared to thee?Thou dost drink and dance and sing,Happier than the happiest king!(Abraham Cowley, The Grasshopper)Gradable/Non-gradableAdjectives fall into these two subclasses according to two criteria: (1) whether the adjective can have a comparative and a superlative form; (2) whether the adjective can be modified by an intensifying adverb (e.g., very). For example, big is a gradable adjective: it can form a comparative (bigger) and a superlative ( biggest), and it can be modified by an intensifier (very big). On the other hand, the adjective wooden (i.e., made of wood) is non-gradable; it fulfills none of the criteria.(H. Jackson, Grammar and Vocabulary. Routledge, 2002)Adjectives are often considered to be the prototypical example of a gradable category. Degree expressions such as too are restricted to adjectives and morphological comparatives. This has led several linguists to conclude that gradability is a distinctive property of adjectives, while others rather insist on the fact that gradability is found across categories.(Jenny Doetjes, Adjectives and Degree Modification, in Adjectives and Adverbs: Syntax, Semantics, and Discourse, ed. L. McNally and C. Kennedy. Oxford University Press, 2008)The age is best which is the first,When youth and blood are warmer;But being spent, the worse and worstTimes still succeed the former.(Robert Herrick, Song)Gradability and Suppletion- Sometimes we find the phenomenon known as supplet ion, where word forms of different historical origins stand in the same sort of relationship within a grammatical paradigm . . .. Thus, worse and worst stand in the same paradigmatic relationship to bad as poorer and poorest do to poor. . . . Both forms go back to the Old English period (Old English wyrsa and wyrst), and they have been the antonyms of better and best (Old English betra and betst) throughout their history in English, but the adjective in the general sense bad to which they correspond (again suppletively) as comparative and superlative in Old English is yfel (modern English evil).(Philip Durkin, The Oxford Guide to Etymology. Oxford University Press, 2009)- Good, better, best,never let it resttill your good isbetter, and yourbetter best.(This early-20th-century dictation exercise illustrates theÃ suppletiveÃ comparative and superlative forms of the adjectiveÃ good.)The Lighter Side of GradabilityGeorge Costanza: Youre gonna over-dry your laundry.Jerry Seinfeld: You cant over-dry.George: Why not?Jerry: Same reason you cant over-wet. You see, when somethings wet, its wet. Same thing with death. Like, once you die, youre dead. Lets say you drop dead and I shoot you. Youre not gonna die again, youre already dead. You cant over-die, you cant over-dry.(Seinfeld)One closing grammar note: I got several letters from people who informed me that stupidest and stupider are not real words.To those people, I say, with gratitude and sincerity: Oh, shut up.(Dave Barry, Hoosier Your Daddy. The Baltimore Sun, January 12, 2003)
Saturday, May 9, 2020
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
HADD stands for Hyperactive agent detection device which acts as a built in or early learned tendency or mental tool to help people understand changes in their environment. As well, it aids in detecting early motives. By stimulating unclear aspects of an environment which then produces belief or clarity in such confusing aspects of an environment, it helps to explain religion and how knowledge is acquired from God. We will write a custom essay sample on Breaking the Spell or any similar topic only for you Order Now if that makes any sense) An exopsychic decision procedure is something along the lines of Ã¢â¬Å"passing the buckÃ¢â¬ as humans attempt to learn or help understand their religion to some extent by passing the responsibility on to someone else who would do the same. To help explain religion, prediction of what the gods would do help religious followers make their own decisions thus forming a perceived way of following religion which gets passed on to following generations. No one really knows for sure why certain religious acts are followed, but as long as no one is questioning the acts, they continue to be practised even though no one really knows the reason behind it. How to cite Breaking the Spell, Essay examples
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
A short story and poem, no matter how structurally different are two literary pieces where a rich story is embedded. Readers are drawn towards these scripts by means of rhythm (poem), characterization, or a fictional setting in their respective narratives. However, the mere script would not make it entertaining enough. It would depend on the imagination of the readers as they are reading the literary script. Every reader has their own way of visualizing the descriptions and symbolism used by the author. The two literary pieces, Ã¢â¬Å"The Road Not TakenÃ¢â¬ which is a poem and the short story Ã¢â¬Å"Used to Live Here OnceÃ¢â¬ are sharing the same theme, which is, every personÃ¢â¬â¢s journey is greatly governed by their decisions, and no matter how many paths there maybe, it is still the person who determines the ending of his or her journey. On the other hand, the theme unfolded differently in these two literary pieces. We will write a custom essay sample on Short Story vs Poem or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page First, Robert Frost in his Ã¢â¬Å"The Road Not TakenÃ¢â¬ hinted in his poem that the character would be going through a journey. And since he used the first person character, which was Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ it was easier to imagine him as the one who is going through the journey. On the contrary, the short story Ã¢â¬Å"Used to live Here OnceÃ¢â¬ was written in third person, or Ã¢â¬Å"sheÃ¢â¬ . But based on the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s presentation, I readily imagined an alone woman as the character in the story. I was able to confirm this, because of a certain part in the story where the woman was talking to animals as she was walking like Ã¢â¬Å"Out of my way, all you foxes, owls, and beetlesÃ¢â¬ . Because of this characterization, I easily felt solitude in the story. The part where the woman was depicted to be walking uphill is a representation of her struggles in her journey. It is literally hard to walk in an uphill, and considering the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s age, it would be even more exhausting for her to reach her destination. This part merely suggests the hard life that the woman is currently living. It is inevitable for the reader to really feel pity over the character. Ã¢â¬Å"Used to Live Here OnceÃ¢â¬ used the third person, but either way, it was still able to present solitude in its own distinct way. Some lines that strongly suggest solitude are Ã¢â¬Å"She came to the worn stepsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"She was standing by the riverÃ¢â¬ . Basically, the differences in the kind of solitude in the literary pieces were greatly affected by the choices that the character made. A storyÃ¢â¬â¢s setting also affects the kind of engagement that the readers will have with the story. An illustration would be the title of the Road Not Taken. From the title itself, the reader can already sense the conflict in the poem. In fact, the first line of the poem Ã¢â¬Å"two roads diverged in yellow woodÃ¢â¬ made me contemplate as a reader where the two roads could possibly lead me. Moreover, the first person narrative of the poem makes it easier for a reader like me to relate to it, to put myself into the story and character because of the more personal approach. FrostÃ¢â¬â¢s writing allows the reader to take his perspective on things, for instance his description of a certain path Ã¢â¬Å"where it bent in the undergrowthÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"grassy and wanted wearÃ¢â¬ . These descriptions made it clear enough for the readers that there are two distinct paths but are both leading to the same destination. Another interpretation for this is a personÃ¢â¬â¢s attachment to something that is special for him. Usually when presented with two paths, an individual would choose to take the path less traveled, but in this poem Frost does not give us this option. It is clear that both paths have the same amount of wear. Poetry is definitely filled with symbolisms since it is one of its features. For example, the color yellow could mean an aging or something that is starting to lose its value. Another interpretation could also be a reference to the character of Dorothy of the Ã¢â¬Å"Wizard of OzÃ¢â¬ , because the yellow brick road there signified the beginning of her adventures, and she started clueless. Apparently, the Ã¢â¬Å"two roadsÃ¢â¬ in the story could mean a dilemma or two conflicting ideas that a person is dealing with. This could refer to any choice that the person is trying to make. Based on the poem, I can feel that Frost is trying to imply that the person is torn between two opportunities that he is facing. Further, there is another symbolism used to describe the two paths which is Ã¢â¬Å"in leaves no step had trodden blackÃ¢â¬ . Black here could mean death, because of the context of the sentence where it was used. As the poem progresses, it was revealed that there was a more enticing ath for the character which was Ã¢â¬Å"grassy and seemingly vibrantÃ¢â¬ , but doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t guarantee any certainty. Because of this, the other path is considered to be more appealing because it is safe and certain. But, the character in the poem was also bothered by the fact that people who passed by that path never came back. A decision was gradually revealed in the course of the poem, quite creatively. Before giving away the decision readily, the author presented a situation where the character was in front of the woods where he stayed Ã¢â¬Å"on the first for another day. The author was able to creatively emphasize that it was the decision that the decision made was more inclined on the uncertain path, which was definitely more exciting. The ironic tone is set in this poem by this statement Ã¢â¬Å"I shall be telling this with a sigh / Somewhere ages and ages hence. Ã¢â¬ This statement basically means that the writer anticipates dishonesty in his future. The type of dishonesty that I believe the writer is talking about is when he tells this story later in life. He will basically tell people that he choose the path that was less traveled and stuck to it when in fact he had no choice in the matter. Even though he will tell people this statement, he really does not believe it himself because he will remember that neither path was distinguishable from each other. Even though this poem has an ironic tone there is also an undeniable sense of remorse. The speaker knows that he will second-guess himself somewhere down the line or at least wonder what is irreversibly lost. The nature of this decision is such that there is no right path. It is just the chosen path and the other path. The point of the poem is not to key in on the wrong decisions but moments of the decision themselves. These moments mark the passing of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The second literary piece, Ã¢â¬Å"Used to Live Here OnceÃ¢â¬ was less challenging and interesting for me, because there was not much of conflict in the plot. However, it is very predictable for me to feel pity since the author was able to successfully create a sad feeling in his piece. Further, the image of a woman Ã¢â¬Å"standing by the riverÃ¢â¬ made me think that she might have been there for a long time already, and instead of appreciating the river; she already forgot how to appreciate any amount of beauty. I am personally not a fan of sad stories, but this specific story was able to capture my heart in that part when the woman returned to her old home. Further, the narrative style used to present the plot of the story was in third person, thus it might it hard for me to build a certain personal connection with the woman in the story. There was actually one line in the poem that seemed really awkward for me Ã¢â¬Å"It was strange to see a car standing in front of itÃ¢â¬ , since it did not reveal anything about the personality or feelings of the character. I believe that this line was just a mere observation of the writer. Despite the first person perspective, it is also very likely that the author is still writing about her personal experiences, and hiding its sensitivity by means of a third person narrative. According to Elizabeth Able, the literary pieces of Jean Rhys are mostly Ã¢â¬Å"repetitive narratives and are variations of themes of failure and rejectionÃ¢â¬ (Abel, 1979). Words like Ã¢â¬Å"shylyÃ¢â¬ can be a concrete proof of why Abel considers Rhys as someone who has been writing out of the feeling of rejection. The use of symbolism in the story also helped me to easily relate to it on a more personal level. As we all know, river has long been known as the symbol of life, and as the story presented, the woman just kept on staring on the river. At the end of the story, the author already hinted that the woman died. With this, I believe that the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s lingering way of looking at the river was already the symbolism of the reflection that she made about her life. The author also made mention of a road, which was suddenly wider or Ã¢â¬Å"much wider than it used to beÃ¢â¬ , having the context of the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle, it represents the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective about life, which she viewed in a broader a sense. At this point, the author used another color symbolism, which was blue, Ã¢â¬Å"This was a fine blue day. Ã¢â¬ As we all know, blue is a color of tranquility, which means the woman has finally found her peace. Although the story is generally written in third person, there was a certain part wherein the woman was talking to some kids, which was written in first person. This was a very effective scene because of the color symbolisms used by the author. As a matter of fact, color symbolism was mainly the reason why any reader would feel a sense of engagement in RhyÃ¢â¬â¢s story. The journeys presented in the two literary pieces are different, but they all evolved around solitude. First, the Road Not Taken was more on the solidarity of choosing the path to take. Second the Used to Live Her Once, from the title itself tells of a life of a woman who has already passed. The end point is that, each of these stories has their own valuable lesson to share to the readers.
Friday, March 20, 2020
Disuniting of America essays In the book The Disuniting of America author Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. talks about the shift between the traditional focus the melting pot to the multicultural society that dominates public awareness today. He looks at the history of the United Sates and finds that early Americans came here to escape their roots and create a new race. Schlesinger talks about how history is the weapon that Multiculturalists used to convince the children of the public school system of their point of view. He mentions how history has purposely been changed to erase the black marks of the past from the history books. He also speaks of how the decomposition of America has been taking place, through multiculturalism, political correctness, and racial separatism. Schlesinger covers many aspects of the long history of immigration to the United States. Many sought freedom and opportunity, while others like slaves were to America against their will. Although there were various hardships facing the new race, it was the commitment of all the races to democracy and self government that continued over the different languages, religions, and systems of beliefs. Great Britain had a profound influence on the thirteen original colonies. It set forth the British language, laws, institutions, political ideas, literature and customs and gave America an Anglo centric Flavor.(Schlesiger 8) For better or worse, the White Anglo Saxon Protestant tradition was for two centuries, and in crucial aspects still is, the dominant influence on American society.(Schlesinger 8) Immigrants that came to America had to face these ideas and were expected to follow them because it would be the matrix on how they would be assimilated",(Schlesiger 8) and that is how they woul d become part of a new race of Americans. Schlesinger is very critical of historians that sacrifice the facts, in hopes of a more po...
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
How To Be Savvy When Job Hunting With Expert Debra Wheatman When starting out on a job hunt, savvy seekers use search engines and social media to identify opportunities of interest and then use the descriptions that theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve found to help tailor their rÃ ©sumÃ © for that specific goal, says career coach and certified resume writer Debra Wheatman. Ã¢â¬Å"After learning of an opening, it is advisable for a job seeker to determine a way to Ã¢â¬ËnetworkÃ¢â¬â¢ into the company as opposed to simply applying online and hoping that a hiring manager or HR representative reaches out to arrange an interview,Ã¢â¬ she adds.With the number of submissions companies receive via online channels, itÃ¢â¬â¢s imperative that job seekers try to establish connections that might provide the inside track.Ã¢â¬Å"Many companies support and encourage employee referrals and are a great way to enter a company,Ã¢â¬ she says.The president of Careers Done Write recently checked in with us to share some of her insight on todayÃ¢â¬â¢s job markets and what job seekers can do to improve their chances of landing a position. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s what she had to say:These days it seems there are so many online job sites out there, not to mention social media sites like LinkedIn where job seekers can search for jobs Ã¢â¬â whatÃ¢â¬â¢s your advice on getting started in the process without getting overwhelmed?LinkedIn is a great start if someone is just getting up to speed. It is a good way to build a network of connections. Once a compelling profile is set up (with a picture), users should start connecting and joining groups with the understanding that participation is key to generating a return. Many LinkedIn profiles have titles, companies but no detail. It takes work, but you will get out what you put into it. There are a lot of resources available to help people who are just getting started on LinkedIn or any other social platform. LinkedIn has some features and tools that allow for people to identify and connect with others they know, as well as the broader community, making it valuable for job search.What do you think are the most common mistakes job hunters make when conducting job searches online?I find that job seekers spend too much time searching online. Networking remains the most critical and useful way to search for new opportunities. Searching online should be part of the overall search strategy. But I do find that people make it most or sometimes the entire strategy, which is counterproductive. Identifying and ultimately securing a new opportunity requires establishing meaningful and thoughtful connections. Especially in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s market, it is critical for job seekers to be proactive and engaged in the search process.How important is social media to a job search? How are both employers and job seekers alike using it today?Social media is important and here to stay. Job seekers are using tools like LinkedIn and other social sites to conduct research and establish connections as part of the overall s earch strategy. Employers also use social media to research candidates and review information about professional histories, review sample work products and read reviews from others that have worked with or interacted with a job seeker.How should job seekers edit, augment and/or cleanup their social media profiles before starting off on a job hunt?I always tell people that once they post a message or picture, it is out there to stay. Be wise about what you post online. Things of a personal nature do not need to be broadcast for the world to see or read. Be smart about what you share to keep your online reputation clean. I recommend establishing a professional online brand using a professional photo. If there are pictures of someone that are questionable, I recommend removing those. SimpleWash is a tool that can be used to clean up embarrassing comments or seedy status updates that might be contained on a job seekerÃ¢â¬â¢s profile. The app is especially useful for young people who s ometimes post before thinking about the longer-term ramifications.What should job seekers do when submitting applications and rÃ ©sumÃ ©s via online job boards to make sure their name rises to the top of the pile?Job seekers should always aim to tailor a rÃ ©sumÃ © and cover so that their background and achievements are targeted for the position for which they are applying. It should be noted that if a candidate has to redo the rÃ ©sumÃ © completely to apply for a role, it is likely not a good fit. Some tweaks or revisions to a rÃ ©sumÃ © and cover that highlight essential elements of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s background and achievements should be undertaken to ensure the candidate is highlighting key points and examples that set a strong tone as a positive fit for a position.